Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease describes COPD as a preventable and treatable disease. According to (“Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in over 16s: diagnosis and management,” 2019), COPD is characterized by limited airflow that is persistently caused by a chronic inflammatory response in the lungs. CHRONIC Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is one of the leading causes of death in the United States, estimated to affect around 32 million individuals.
Pathophysiology of COPD
COPD exacerbation is supported by typical symptoms such as shortness of breath, sputum production, and chronic coughing. Patients with these symptoms are medically required to rest frequently (Muneswarao et al., 2018). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease begins with inflammation of bronchioles as a result of smoking. It causes infiltration of the cytokine on the bronchiole walls that cause inflammation to become more persistent. Inflammation on these walls causes edema, mucus production, and the spreading of bacteria.
The mucus secretion causes Mr. Brown to feel irritation around the tissues and result in coughing. It is hard for the thick mucus to be cleared due to bronchoconstriction and intoxicated ciliary function. The shortness of breath that Mr. Brown experiences is caused by an obstruction in the airways, and therefore he needs to take more rest, which helps him not overwork his lungs. Other problems that Mr. Brown could be experiencing related to COPD signs and symptoms include trouble in talking, moving, and a wheezing sound from the lungs.
An increase in the RR is related to obstruction of airways and shortness of breathing due to impaired gas exchange in the lungs. Mr. Brown’s temperature is increased slightly due to inflammation and bacterial infection. Oxygen saturation is low as a result of ventilation imbalance. Heart rate increased to counterbalance the RR and elevation of systolic BP to indemnify HR. Mr. Brown’s problem is an impaired gas exchange due to alveolar hyperventilation and bronchoconstriction. It causes him to cough and experience tightness in the chest.
Following the health standards laid out by (GOLD), I would recommend these two short-term care goals to Mr. Brown: to maintain his patent airway and improve his pulse oximetry to at least 95% according to the room air. As Mr. Brown’s nurse, I encourage abdominal of pursed-lip breathing. It is a way of reducing air trapping in his lungs. I will assist Mr. Brown to assume a more comfortable position for easy breathing. It requires me to check on him regularly and make sure he sleeps with his head elevated.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in over 16s: diagnosis and management. (2019, July 26). NICE | The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng115
Muneswarao, J., Verma, A. K., & Hassali, M. A. (2018). undefined. Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 49, 10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pupt.2017.12.009
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Read the following case study and answer the posed questions:
Mr. Les Brown has been diagnosed with COPD 10 years ago. He has been increasingly shortness of breath doing activities of daily living, needing to rest more frequently and feels he is coughing more often.
Explain the pathophysiology behind the signs and symptoms of COPD
What relationship do you see with Mr. Brown’s vital signs – 26 RR, 91% oxygen saturation, temp: 37.8, HR: 93 BP: 150/70
Describe the goals of care for Mr Brown. Make sure to use the COPD gold standards of care( https://goldcopd.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/WMS-GOLD-2018-Feb-Final-to-print-v2.pdf (Links to an external site.)) for your plan.
How would you follow up on your proposed plan of care?
Responses need to address all components of the question, demonstrate critical thinking and analysis, and include peer reviewed journal evidence to support the student’s position.
Please be sure to validate your opinions and ideas with citations and references in APA format.
Please review the rubric to ensure that your response meets the criteria.
It is anticipated that the initial discussion response should be in the range of 250-300 words. Response posts must demonstrate topic knowledge and scholarly engagement with peers. This is not the only criteria utilized for evaluation; substantive content is imperative. All questions in the topic must be addressed. Please proofread your response carefully for grammar and spelling. Do not upload any attachments. All responses need to be supported by a minimum of one scholarly resource. Journals and websites must be cited appropriately. Citation and reference must adhere to APA format.