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Pharmacogenomics and Chronic Illnesses

Pharmacogenomics and Chronic Illnesses


                                                                       Pharmacogenomics and Chronic Illnesses

Pharmacogenomics refers to a branch of personalized medicine concerned with how people’s reaction to treatment is affected by their different genomes. This article introduces the aspect of personalized medicine and Pharmacogenomics. It further explains the role of nurses in Pharmacogenomics testing and how it can optimize prescription. They stress the importance of healthcare professionals in making prescribing decisions. According to (Youseff E, Buck J, Wright DJ, 2020), Pharmacogenomics is also called pharmacokinetics. The two are used interchangeably. Pharmacogenomic testing is used to manage certain cancers such as breast cancer, lung, and colon. Cancer is an example of diseases treated through Pharmacogenomic medicines.

Genetic testing of inherited genomes other than guiding cancer treatment explains the variations in pharmacodynamic action and pharmacokinetics of medicine. The article also notes the Clinical Pharmacokinetics Implementation Consortium. An organization in the United States is involved in publishing guidelines for commonly prescribed medications to use Pharmacogenomics. Examples of medicines highlighted in these guidelines include anti-depressants such as sertraline used in mental health disorders. Pharmacogenomic testing has been made less expensive, and its availability increased worldwide. Part of its advantage is that it improves the safety and efficiency of prescribing. A good example is an antiretroviral drug known as Abcavir used to treat patients with HIV (Joint Formulary Committee 2019).

Lastly, Pharmacogenomic testing is meant for guiding the dosing of medications such as Warfarin. It is used in the diagnosis of patients reporting cases of cardiac arrhythmias in therapy sessions. Other benefits of Pharmacogenomics testing include improving patient’s adherence to medicines and supporting the discontinuation of treatment, especially if they are causing harm to patient’s health (Dan M Roden Howard L McLeod Mary V Relling, 2019).

Nurses Role

One of our primary responsibilities as nurses is effective medication administration; therefore, the nurse’s role in this context is essential. Advocacy in nursing involves demanding and advocating for quality care is offered to patients. It includes dosing and drug precision offered by Pharmacogenomics. Nurses should be able to communicate the benefits and risks associated with genetic testing and when it is available for patients to access. Additionally, they should be competent enough to know the correct time that genetic testing is indicated before prescription drugs. For example, in the United States, where Pharmacogenomics testing is practiced, nurses can order tests for their patients. It means that nurses should be able to educate and inform patients of their test results. We have to monitor the patient’s response to the drug and make sure they receive the correct medication and dose.

Ethical Implications

As nurses, aside from communicating about adverse drug reactions and providing interventions, we also have an ethical responsibility to our patients. First, we have to make sure that patients understand how genetic testing works and how they benefit their healthcare. It is essential to ensure that they agree to the testing before the actual act because it affects them and their family members who might be genetically disposed of.


Genetic testing can tailor treatment for both acute and chronic illnesses as well as have a life-altering impact on the health of patients and families. Nurses serve as the best advocates for quality health care and services to patients. Therefore, they have the mandate to first educate individuals on genetic testing and the role that Pharmacogenomics testing plays in the health care management of them and their family members.




Dan M Roden Howard L McLeod Mary V Relling. (2019, August 5). Pharmacogenomics. PubMed. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31276-0


Youseff E, Buck J, Wright DJ. (2020). Understanding Pharmacogenomic Testing and its role in Medicine Prescribing.Nursing Standard. The Pharmaceutical Journal


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Discussion: Providing Genetic Nursing Care to Patients With Chronic Illnesses


There are several chronic health problems with genetic/genomic components that plague the population. These health problems are very difficult and challenging diseases to manage. Evidenced-based nursing practice must include genetic and genomic information when planning patient care. Nurses, through their knowledge and support, play an important role in positive patient outcomes when managing the challenges of these genetically linked diseases.


For this Discussion, you will consider applications of various topics to genetics and genomics. Review the Resources focusing on the application of genetics and genomics to nursing


Choose one of the following subtopics:


Pharmacogenomics and chronic illnesses

Genomics in patient assessment

Genetically competent care for those with chronic illnesses


Locate at least one scholarly journal article that discusses your subtopic.


Respond to the following:


– Identify your subtopic and provide a brief summary of your journal article on how this topic relates to nursing practice.

– What is the nurse’s role in providing care in relation to your subtopic and the overarching theme of advocacy?

– What ethical implications should be considered with regard to genetics and genomics for nursing practice? Why?


Support your response with references from the professional nursing literature.


Note Initial Post: A 3-paragraph (at least 350 words) response. Be sure to use evidence from the readings and include in-text citations. Utilize essay-level writing practice and skills, including the use of transitional material and organizational frames. Avoid quotes; paraphrase to incorporate evidence into your own writing. A reference list is required. Use the most current evidence (usually ≤ 5 years old).


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