Pathophysiologic Relationship between MI and Left Ventricular Failure
Myocardial Infarction (MI), which is commonly known as a heart attack, is a condition that results in the necrosis (irreversible death) of the myocardium due to prolonged insufficient supply of oxygen (ischemia). Left ventricular failure (LVF) is a condition resulting from left ventricle dysfunction, which leads to inadequate blood flow to the vital organs (Ishikawa et al., 2018). The left ventricle is the heart’s primary pumping power source.
The primary structural and functional abnormalities that result in left ventricular abnormalities and coronary artery diseases are diseases associated with cardiac remodeling such as; left ventricular fibrosis, left ventricular hypertrophy, and left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Aldosterone is a significant hormone in all the cardiac responses as it adversely affects them by producing fibrosis, vasculopathy, and left ventricular dysfunction (Siddiqui et al., 2018). Therefore, the left ventricular dysfunction leads to a progression of heart failure and an arrhythmic substrate’s development. A combination of arrhythmias and acute coronary events leads to sudden cardiac deaths. Moreover, accelerated heart disease leads to death from progressive heart failure. Thus, aldosterone plays the most significant role in providing the significance between MI and LVF.
Factors Affecting the Severity of LVF
Several factors affect the severity of left ventricular heart failure; ventricular remodeling, recurrent myocardial ischemia, infarct size, mechanical complications, stunned myocardium, and hibernating myocardium influence.
Manifestations and management of clients with deep vein thrombosis
Most of the clients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) remain asymptomatic. However, some common symptoms are expected in the affected body part; tenderness, pain, swelling, and redness of the skin (CDC, 2020). One of the management modes of DVT is pharmacotherapy agents such as heparin and warfarin which are blood thinners used. Graduated compression stockings are also used to relieve pain and swelling. In severe cases of the condition, surgical removal of the clot might be considered.
According to the presentation, a patient may present with pulmonary embolism (PE) even when asymptomatic for DVT. Management of risk factors is the most appropriate way of preventing DVT. Weight regulation, diet control, and lifestyle are the best preventive measures.
Ishikawa, K., Watanabe, S., Lee, P., Akar, F. G., Lee, A., Bikou, O., … & Hajjar, R. J. (2018). Acute left ventricular unloading reduces atrial stretch and inhibits atrial arrhythmias. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 72(7), 738-750.
Siddiqui, M. K. R., Karmakar, P. K., Nabi, S., Hossain, M. A., Faroque, S. M. O., Khuda, C. M. K. E., … & Khan, M. M. H. (2018). Association of Body Mass Index with In-Hospital Left Ventricular Failure after Percutaneous Coronary Interventions. Bangladesh Heart Journal, 33(1), 39-46.
What is Venous Thromboembolism? (2020, February 07). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/dvt/facts.html
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It is anticipated that the initial discussion response should be in the range of 250-300 words. Response posts must demonstrate topic knowledge and scholarly engagement with peers. This is not the only criteria utilized for evaluation; substantive content is imperative. All questions in the topic must be addressed. Please proofread your response carefully for grammar and spelling. Do not upload any attachments. All responses need to be supported by a minimum of one scholarly resource. Journals and websites must be cited appropriately. Citation and reference must adhere to APA format.
Students are expected to initially address the discussion question by Wednesday of each week. Participation in the discussion forums is expected with a minimum total of three (3) substantive postings (this includes your initial posting and posting to two peers) on three (3) different days per week. Substantive means that you add something new to the discussion, you aren’t just agreeing. This is also a time to ask questions or offer information surrounding the topic addressed by your peers. Personal experience is appropriate for a substantive discussion and should be correlated to the literature.
All discussion boards will be evaluated utilizing rubric criterion inclusive of content, analysis, collaboration, writing and APA. If you fail to post an initial discussion you will not receive these points, you may however post to your peers for partial credit following the guidelines above. Due to the nature of this type of assignment and the need for timely responses for initial posts and posting to peers, the Make-Up Coursework Policy (effective July 2017) does not apply to Discussion Board Participation.
Read the following case study and answer the posed questions:
Mr. T., a 45-year-old black man employed as a midlevel corporate manager, came to the doctor’s office seeking a physical examination. He appeared somewhat overweight. He denied taking any medications or smoking, but admitted drinking alcohol. His father and older brother have hypertension (HTN) and his paternal grandfather experienced a myocardial infarction (MI) and a CVA at a young age. Mr. T. stated, “A year ago at a health fair my cholesterol was tested. I was told later by mail that my cholesterol was 250 and I had to recheck my blood pressure.” His Bp at the time of his examination was 159/94, HR 96, weight 275, height 5’11 in.
Explain the progressive pathophysiologic relationship between an MI and the development of left ventricular (LV) failure. What factors affect the severity of LV failure?
Next, visit http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/dvt/facts.html (Links to an external site.) and access resources about deep vein thrombosis.
Document the manifestations and management of clients with deep vein thrombosis.
Submit a summary of some of the things you learned from this video.
Responses need to address all components of the question, demonstrate critical thinking and analysis, and include peer reviewed journal evidence to support the student’s position.
Please be sure to validate your opinions and ideas with citations and references in APA format.
Please review the rubric to ensure that your response meets the criteria.